The Law of Cause and Effect

The Law of Cause and Effect (sometimes known as Karma) is fundamental to the universe. It is probably most closely associated with the physical sciences, for example, when a snooker cue strikes a ball, the ball moves, and when one ball hits another, the impact made by the first causes the second to move. Their speed and direction can be predicted accurately by applying precise scientific measurements and principles.

In the world of human behaviour, causes and effects are not so easily measured and may not be predictable, but are no less real. With very few exceptions (e.g. purely reflex reactions), every action you ever took and every word you ever spoke began as a thought. Your present has been shaped by your actions, which were governed by your past thoughts and emotions; and your future will be shaped by the actions you take from now on, which will be shaped by your future thoughts and emotions.

The Law of Cause and Effect describes the relationship between what we think, feel and do and what we get out of life. It states that everything we are and everything we have has been shaped by ‘causes’ laid down in the past.

Every action has a cause.

Every cause produces an effect.

Thoughts are prime causes.

Speech, emotions and actions (and their results) are their effects.

Therefore constructive thoughts lead to positive emotions and constructive actions.

Negative thoughts lead to damaging emotions and destructive actions.

Therefore we constantly contribute to our circumstances – both present and future – by the way we think. And when we decide to change our way of thinking – including our beliefs, attitudes and prejudices – and sow different ‘seeds’, we change; and when we change, our circumstances change too, irrespective of what has gone before. The world responds to what we think, believe, imagine, feel, say and do.

Some consider this a frightening prospect, because it means taking responsibility for ourselves, but it’s actually one of the most hopeful things about being alive – the fact that we can turn our lives around by choosing to think differently. Only you decide what to think – if you don’t choose your thoughts, who does?

Some would say there’s little we can do, because our futures are laid out in our genes or by fate – but our genes only account for about a small part of our psychological make up. Others argue that we are merely the product of our programming and conditioning and we can do nothing to change this – but these are learned, and anything that has been learned can be reappraised, un-learned and re-learned.

The only question is – how?

It’s not as hard as you may think!

©David Lawrence Preston 28.2.2016

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Guilt – A Useless Emotion

Mae West: ‘For a long time I was ashamed of the way I lived.’

 Interviewer: ‘Did you reform?’

 Mae West: ‘No, I’m not ashamed any more.’

Guilt is anger turned in on yourself. It is one of the most common emotions, and one of the most disabling. It is also one of the most useless.

Many people fret needlessly over things which they could have done little to change. Others feel guilty even when they know they’ve done nothing wrong. And others spend their whole lives punishing themselves for not being the person they (or their parents) think they should be.

Guilt looks to the past which is, of course, impossible to change. But we can change what we think about it. Dwelling on something that can’t be changed is energy consuming and self-esteem destroying. Everything that happened happened for a reason. Look for the lesson. Don’t keep repeating the same mistakes.

However, a twinge of guilt can trigger a positive response if it’s handled well. It can motivate you to put things right.

If you feel guilty about something:

  1. Reflect on the situation. What message is the guilt trying to convey? Why are you punishing yourself in this way? Did you really err? Is someone else trying to manipulate you into feeling guilty? What are you trying to achieve? You may find you had no reason to feel as guilty in the first place.
  2. If your guilt is not justified because you have done nothing wrong, or couldn’t have prevented what happened, let it go.
  3. If you genuinely did make a mistake or could have done better, let the other person know  and apologise. Then do what you can to put it right and make a commitment not to do it again in the future.
  4. Then forget it at move on. If you can do nothing more about it – either because events have moved on or you’ve lost touch with the other person – you’ve nothing to gain by dwelling on it, and neither have they.

Give me the serenity to accept what I can’t change,

The courage to change what I can,

And the wisdom to know the difference.

Reinhold Niebuhr

©David Lawrence Preston, 3.7.2018

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The Molecules of Emotion

Anyone who has ever felt sick with worry or cried at the cinema knows that there is a close connection between our thoughts, emotions and bodily state, but only in the last couple of decades has the medical establishment acknowledged this connection and begun to take it seriously. The reason was that scientists could find no discernible means by which the brain, nervous system and immune system communicated with each other, and hence could not explain how the mind could possibly bring about physical changes.

Dr Candace Pert changed all that. She discovered the biochemical mechanisms through which mind-body communication takes place. As a result of her work, and that work of other great PNI (Psycho-Neuro-Immunology) pioneers such as Cannon, Ader, Felten and the rest, no serious medic today would deny that our thoughts and emotions affect our health. No longer can we regard the body and mind as distinct from each other – they function together as a single unit, an interconnected whole.

The Molecules of Emotion is an account of Dr Pert’s life and work from her graduation in 1970 until its publication in 1997. The first chapter sets the scene, a scientific explanation of ligands, peptides and receptor sites cleverly woven into her account of how she approaches lecturing to an expert audience.  The next few chapters describe the defining period on her life when, as a young scientist trying to make her mark, she fought off those who said it couldn’t be done and discovered the opiate receptor in the brain. She then found herself at odds with those in power who resented her challenge to established scientific thinking and who weren’t ready to be confronted by – shock horror!!! – a woman shaking things up. Indeed, this episode sets the tone for much of the book. She frequently returns to the 1970’s style feminism, concluding that her difficulties in getting the credit to which she was entitled were due to her gender rather than the dirty tricks and ruthlessness of professional colleagues.

Personally, as one who gave up chemistry and biology at an early age, I found the book tough going in places, but the ‘difficult’ passages soon give way to more reader friendly narrative. Parts are stomach churning; her description of making a frothy milkshake-like mixture from the brains of the recently deceased is not for the faint-hearted, but an essential part of her research. She describes research that would later signpost an effective treatment for HIV, an easily synthesised polypeptide that would block one of the receptor sites by which the virus gains access to the body. Complicated, yes, but even so, the author makes it as clear as possible for the uninitiated like me. I learned a great deal, and, thanks to a clear and comprehensive index at the back, will use the book as a source of reference in the future.

Besides, for me, the science is not the only point of the book, for behind the technical details lies a fascinating human interest story of a determined young woman doing unconventional research in a staid and conservative environment. Indeed, her first major breakthrough would not have happened if she’d obeyed her superior’s instruction to discontinue that line of research. Then as the story unfolds, we learn how she was denied her share in a prestigious award, even though she did most of the research; her difficulties combining he professional life with her family life; her 10 year struggle to get funding for research; and how she founding of a research institute with a state-of-the-art laboratory only to have the funding withdrawn after falling foul of the intriguingly unnamed ‘Second Biggest Drug Company on the Planet’. She tells how she sabotaged her chances of gaining a Nobel Prize nomination by refusing to support the nomination of a group of (male) rivals who she felt had stolen her ideas.

Later breakthroughs in HIV/AIDS and cancer treatments followed, each as hard-fought as the last. By then, she had become more resilient, and her anger and frustration had given way to mindfulness and acceptance. For out of her research had come the realisation that forgiveness and a positive attitude in the face of adversity are important for maintaining wellbeing, and that toxic emotions must be expressed and worked through.

meridiansThe final chapters offer an eight part programme for a healthy lifestyle. By then, she had discovered meditation, consciousness and chakra-based energy medicine. She had become an apostle for integrating mainstream, science-based medicine with holistic healthcare, and acknowledged the interaction between ‘healer’ and ‘client’ as an important part of the healing process. She had also stumbled across the notion of information exchange as the basis of understanding biological life, referring to neuropeptides and receptors as ‘information molecules’.

The Molecules of Emotion has been criticised by the more scientifically minded as focussing too much on the human interest story and veering too far towards the ‘woo-woo’ in its final chapters, and by science-phobics as too heavy on technical detail.  But science is an unfolding process. Scientifically, the world has moved on since The Molecules of Emotion was first published. We know a great deal more about the mechanisms by which our mental and emotional processes affect the biochemical make up of the body and manifest as health and wellbeing or dysfunction and disease. As a result, health practitioners (including doctors) are no longer reluctant to discuss with clients how their beliefs and lifestyle choices impact on their health, and more and more clients readily embrace holistic healing approaches alongside conventional medicine.

Dr Pert made some important discoveries, then, not content to keep them to herself, fought hard to bring them to our attention. Her work validates what common sense has always told us – that the mind and body are intimately connected. For me, this book is an essential read for anyone engaged in medicine/healthcare and/or healing, either as a practitioner, educator, policymaker or administrator.

Dr Candace Pert, The Molecules of Emotion: Why You Feel The Way You Feel, Pocket Books, 1999, ISBN- 13: 978-0-6710-3397-2


Copyright David Lawrence Preston, 25.3.18. All rights reserved.

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Three Ways Not to Handle Emotions

People go to ridiculous lengths to suppress uncomfortable feelings – alcohol, smoking, drugs, gambling, overeating etc. These can work in the short-term, but are they wise?

Obviously there is nothing wrong with enjoying an occasional drink and so on, but if these tactics are used to mask or suppress painful emotions, you could be storing up trouble for yourself. Why? Because suppressed emotions often surface in other ways:

  • Lack of energy and motivation
  • Stress-related symptoms and illnesses, including violent behaviour or bad temper
  • Depression, anxiety, panic attacks, phobias of one sort or another, etc.
  • Relationship difficulties
  • In extreme cases, physical problems such as asthma, eczema, cancer or arthritis. There is plenty of well documented scientific research to validate this. Medical opinion is rapidly shifting to the view that many debilitating illnesses have emotional causes.

Here are three ways of handling uncomfortable emotions which at best reduce your enjoyment of life and at worst can be self-destructive:

  1. Avoidance

Avoidance means staying away from situations that you fear would make you uncomfortable, for instance:

  • Finding excuses for not going to a party if you’re shy.
  • Steering clear of intimate relationships.
  • Refusing to go for a promotion if you lack confidence (even if you’re capable of doing the job).
  • Dressing unimaginatively to avoid drawing attention to yourself.

Yes, avoidance dulls the current pain – but it also robs you of opportunities to experience the emotions you do want – fun, friendship, love, adventure, achievement, and so on. It also reinforces low self-esteem and can bring loneliness and frustration.

Ultimately, you can’t avoid feeling something. Fortunately, there’s a much better way – understanding your emotions so you can deal with life more effectively. If you want a fresh outcome, you must try a different approach. Even if it goes wrong, you’ve learned something valuable for the future.

  1. Denial

Denial is disassociating from your feelings. You tell yourself and others, ‘It doesn’t feel that bad’. But it does.

Denying an emotion is dangerous. Unless you deal with the root cause, you merely create more and more discomfort. An ignored emotion does not go away. It simply increases in intensity until you are compelled to pay attention, for instance, your partner walks out on you, you lose your job or a serious illness forces you to change.

If you use avoidance tactics, or are often tempted to do so, ask yourself:

  • Am I perceiving thing correctly?
  • What exactly am I trying to avoid?
  • Is the threat real or imagined?
  • What could I do to handle this better?
  • What could I learn from this that would help me?
  • Is there a better way of communicating my needs and wants to others?

Learning from your emotions is the crux of emotional intelligence, but some never learn. Just think: if the oil warning light on the dashboard of your car started flickering, would you pretend you hadn’t seen it or smash the bulb with a hammer? Of course not! You’d check the oil level. Otherwise you could be storing up trouble for yourself.

You can’t run away from emotions – if you think you can, you’re deluding yourself.

  1. Self-indulgence

Some people wallow in their emotions. They pride themselves on feeling worse off than everyone else. ‘You think you’ve got problems. Wait until you hear about mine!’

There are a number of possible reasons for this, but usually it’s an attempt to attract attention and sympathy or to manipulate others by attempting to place blame or make them feel indebted.

Emotional self-indulgence often backfires because the perpetrator can end up with an investment in feeling bad. It then becomes a rapidly descending spiral. Nor would you want to allow your emotional programming to ruin your life, when your emotions could be such a rich source of energy, purpose and enjoyment.

The secret is to treat every emotion as an opportunity for growth and learn from them. When you do this, the terms ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ emotions become irrelevant since you understand that all emotions are there for your benefit.

Emotionally intelligent means knowing what emotions you and others have, how strong they are, and what causes them. It’s about being honest about your feelings, asking for what you want and above all learning to express yourself from the heart.


©David Lawrence Preston, 4.7.2016

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Humans are emotional creatures

We kid ourselves that we are intelligent, rational beings, but we’re not. Most humans are more inclined to act emotionally than ‘logically’, and emotions can ruin our ability to think clearly. Mastery of the emotions, especially the ability to stay calm under pressure and bounce back after defeat, is the key to success in many fields. We can all think of talented people who never made the most of their abilities because they lacked ’emotional intelligence’.

Emotions can bring us great joy, but they can also cause of misery, ill-health and frustration. But can we influence them? Can we change them altogether? Yes we can. But we must want to.

What Are Emotions?

‘Emotion’ comes from the Latin, ’emovere’, which means ‘to move’, ‘to excite’ or ‘to agitate’. An emotion is a strong feeling which involves both physical changes and changes in behaviour. It’s different from cognition (thinking) and from volition (willing and wanting), yet all three are related. Just as thinking and wanting involve feeling, so feeling involves thinking and wanting.

Our emotional responses were initially programmed into the primitive part of the brain in early childhood, before the ‘thinking mind’ or ‘intellect’ started to develop. For our first few years, all our behaviour was governed by the emotional centres in the brain. This is why children are so easily emotionally aroused, and why they are able to switch rapidly from, say, anger or tears to smiles.

Every emotional experience we ever had was stored away in the unconscious and continues to influence us long after the original incident took place. Children who are fortunate enough to enjoy caring parents and a safe, loving environment grow up feeling confident and secure. Children who feel unloved and ignored often develop emotional problems which can remain with them for life – unless they deal with them before it is too late.

Sometimes, childhood emotional experiences are so painful that they are repressed deep into the unconscious: this is the mind trying to protect us from the anxiety they would cause if we were fully aware of them. When this happens, they are beyond our conscious awareness but can be released in various ways.

This certainly doesn’t mean that if we had an unhappy childhood, we’re doomed. Not at all. As we mature, that other part of the mind – the intelligent, rational mind – develops. We learn that displays of emotion are not always the best way of getting what we want. We learn more adult ways of functioning.

Deep seated negative emotions

Obviously there is a big difference between momentary emotional discomfort and deep-seated emotional problems. If we find our energy and motivation starting to sag, there’s a lot we can do to get back on track. Similarly, if we’re about to face a stressful experience, there are ways of taking control and coping with the ordeal.

But if old emotional patterns are preventing us from making the best of ourselves, we can use the ‘reflective’ parts of the mind to work through and move beyond them. We can learn how to gently let go of irrational feelings so they no longer upset us; we can train ourselves to look for and use the lessons they offer us. This doesn’t mean ignoring or suppressing emotions – suppressing emotion is extremely dangerous in the long term and can result in serious physical and psychological illness.

We can’t always make an uncomfortable feeling go away especially if it’s deeply ingrained. But we can learn to handle it more effectively. Do this consistently over a period of time, and the discomfort eventually subsides. For example, anyone who has experienced divorce or bereavement knows that time is the great healer. Eventually we adjust to our new circumstances.

Why emotions affect people so differently

A few years ago, a newspaper carried a story about a man who was in a panic. He’d received a letter from the gas company threatening to cut off his supply because he hadn’t paid a £200 bill. They’d threatened him with a court order which would have authorised them to gain entry into his flat. ‘I’m so upset,’ he told the reporter, ‘I won’t sleep tonight.’

The irony was, he lived in an all-electric flat! It was simply a computer error. But why did it affect him so badly? Some would find the idea of the gas company showing up to turn off his non-existent gas supply quite amusing! He was worrying about something that couldn’t possibly happen – and that he knew couldn’t possibly happen. Others would have simply telephoned the company, and calmly sorted it out.

So why the difference? It boils down to the fact that our emotional problems are not for the most part caused by events and circumstances, but by our beliefs, attitudes and reactions. A harsh lesson for some – but true.

Our emotions, like every part of our physical and psychological make-up, have a purpose. We wouldn’t have them otherwise. In essence, they are a fast response feedback mechanism. If things go the way we want, or expect, or are used to, we feel good. If not, we feel bad. Emotions steer us towards what seems safe, comfortable and pleasurable and away from anything which might be uncomfortable. They are born out of our perceptions of what is pleasurable and what could cause ‘pain’.

The important word here is perceptions. But what happens if our perceptions are misguided?

For example, say you are facing a difficult interview for a job you really want.  Your stomach is churning. You may want to ‘bottle out’ but if you do you may miss out on a golden opportunity. Scarcely anyone has ever been killed or injured attending an interview. The worst that can possibly happen is that you dry up or you can’t answer all the questions. Embarrassing but hardly life threatening. So you go ahead anyway, ignoring the emotions – because you know the benefits of getting the job will outweigh the ‘pain’ in the longer term.

We can easily be misled by our own feelings. Just because something feels wrong, it doesn’t necessarily follow that it is wrong. Similarly, just because something feels right, it doesn’t automatically follow that it is right.

Emotions often feel the same as intuitions. Both affect us physically, but there’s a world of difference between an intuitive feeling and an emotional response programmed into the brain when we were young. If it’s genuinely the intuition, we would be foolish to ignore it. But if it is merely emotional conditioning, we could easily be deceived. Sometimes it is best to just feel the fear and do it anyway.

How do you know whether it’s your intuition or emotional programming? That’s the question!

Can we control our emotions?

Think of a time when you were so angry you could quite easily have hurt someone, but you didn’t. What happened? The rational part of your brain clicked into gear, reminded you of the consequences and halted you in your tracks. You knew you would be worse off in the long term if you carried on, so you dealt with it some other way.

We can’t always prevent ourselves from feeling an emotion; the primitive part of the brain tends to click into gear without conscious direction. But unless we have a neurological condition we can control our response. Occasionally, emotions may appear to ‘just come over us’, but that hides the reality. Emotions come from inside. We create them. No-one else can make us feel anything without our participation.

We don’t have to – and shouldn’t always – go with our feelings. Follow them when warranted, and disregard them when you realise that they’re obstructing you progress or leading you into unwanted consequences.

And remember – the Law of Cause and Effect operates irrespective of your emotional programming!


©David Lawrence Preston, 1.8.2016

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Mahatma Gandhi said, ‘We often become what we believe ourselves to be. If I believe I cannot do something, it makes me incapable of doing it. When I believe I can, I acquire the ability to do it even if I didn’t have it in the beginning.’

Empowering beliefs are essential for success in any area of life. Imagine: you crave a loving relationship, but you believe you’re not very attractive and no-one likes you all that much. If that is truly your belief and you speak and act upon it (that is, give it energy), it helps shape your reality.

Many of our beliefs are never questioned, yet form the basis of how we go about our lives.

Negative beliefs form a vicious cycle. First you are exposed to them. Then you buy into them. Then they become part of you, you argue for them and reinforce them, only acknowledging evidence that supports them and ignoring any evidence – however strong – to the contrary. Criticise a person’s beliefs, and they feel under attack.

Hanging on to dis-empowering beliefs is like trying to go forward with the car in reverse gear. No matter how much you want something, if you don’t believe you can have it or you feel unworthy, you’ll settle for less than you could have had, and less than you deserve.

Get your beliefs working for you

Beliefs don’t have to be true to impact on our lives – in fact, the most damaging beliefs are rarely true. That’s because we see the world through a ‘screen’ made up of our perceptions and our understandings of reality rather than ‘reality’ itself. We base our decisions on our perceptions, which are heavily influenced by our beliefs.

In a very real sense, when we change our beliefs, we change some aspect of our lives. The bigger the belief, the bigger the change. On reflection, you’ll discover that the main power drains are your fears and other limiting beliefs. If you believe life is too difficult and you are not cut out for success, you’re right – it is, and you’re not!

What are beliefs?

A belief is any set of thoughts or ideas that you accept as true.

Our strongest beliefs usually concern ‘the way it is’. They include religious ideas, moral values and ‘do’s’ and ‘don’ts’ such as respect for law and order, family responsibilities and loyalty to one’s country or community.

All beliefs are learned, some in childhood and some as we develop and mature, for instance, from conversations we have with friends and people we trust, plus teachers, role models and the media.

Childhood programming and conditioning plays a major part. But beliefs also arise from:

  1. How we interpreted our juvenile experiences;
  2. New knowledge we acquired as we matured; and
  3. The results of anything we attempted or achieved when we branched out on your own.

There is, however, another way that beliefs can be formed: We can consciously and deliberately create them. We can also change unhelpful beliefs, including restricting beliefs about ourselves.

Did you used to believe in Father Christmas and the Tooth Fairy? Do you still? Probably not. These are among the many beliefs you changed when they no longer seemed appropriate.

Once a belief takes root:

  • The mind continually searches for the evidence to prove that it is right, whether the belief is demonstrably true or false or impossible to prove either way.
  • We behave in accordance with the belief. So, for instance, every time we try to outperform what we believe we’re capable of, we encounter resistance from within. When this happens, only by changing our inner beliefs will our most challenging goals be achieved.

As an adult, you, and you alone, decide what to believe or continue to believe. Other people have their opinions, but they only affect your belief system if you allow them.

Great Expectations

To succeed at anything, you first have to believe that you can do it. Low expectations bring mediocre results and high expectations bring outstanding results. But, on the other hand, expecting to fail is like entering a boxing ring with your hands tied behind your back.

Many studies have shown that raising young people’s expectations of themselves undoubtedly raises their level of achievement. That’s why young people with high achieving parents are likely to follow suit, because they take on the positive expectations of their parents. Positive expectations create confidence, commitment and better performance.

Expectations are powerful messages sent to the unconscious mind. When we expect the best and act accordingly (that is, input energy), we usually get it!

Disputing unhelpful beliefs

After exhaustive research, Dr Albert Ellis (one of the founders of cognitive behavioural psychology) demonstrated that irrational beliefs are the main causes of emotional disorders such as panic attacks, phobias, anxiety and low self-esteem. In other words, these crippling emotions are not caused by the events and circumstances of our lives, but by our beliefs– in other words, what we tell ourselves about them.

In his ‘ABC’ model:

  • ‘A’ is any ‘Activating Event’ which leads to an emotional or behavioural response;
  • ‘C’ the ‘Consequence’, i.e. the emotion itself.

However, ‘C’ is not caused directly by ‘A’. ‘C’ is caused by:

  • ‘B’ – our beliefs (attitudes or thoughts) about ‘A’.

Here’s an actual example. One morning a friend spotted her neighbour pegging out her washing.  She shouted ‘hello’, but there was no response. She was baffled, then hurt, then angry. No-one likes to be ignored.  How could she treat her like this?

In order to feel this way, she would have to (1) believe certain things about her neighbour’s behaviour, and (2) judge that behaviour good or bad Had she unknowingly upset her, perhaps? But there are other possible explanations. She may have not heard her and been preoccupied with other matters. She may have had no intention of causing offence.

My friend’s emotional response depended on her beliefs about her neighbour,  whether she thought she was deliberately ignoring her, and how serious being ignored was to her.  This is where ‘disputing’ comes in. Disputing is examining one’s beliefs about a situation that triggers negative feelings and challenging them. Are they true? Where’s the evidence that she deliberately snubbed her? Are there alternative explanations which cast a different light on the incident?

Disputing an unhelpful belief involves asking yourself:

  • What else could this (situation, memory, behaviour etc.) mean?
  • How else could it be described?
  • Did I miss something?
  • What positive value could it have?
  • What have I learned from it that will benefit me in future?

Disputing enables you to find alternative explanations and perhaps realise that you needlessly undersold yourself or took offence for no good reason. Keep challenging the negative belief until the unwanted feeling subsides. Deeply entrenched beliefs do not usually dissolve in an instant, but they will in time if you persevere.

(PS: The following day my friend discovered that her neighbour’s mother had died during the night and she was about to rush off to make the funeral arrangements. How do you think she felt given this new information?)

Disputing is not intended as a method for suppressing emotion (which is unwise), but for examining the belief about an incident that triggered an emotion, taking a different attitude to it, and finding better ways of responding. It can be used in current situations or to work through situations which have set off uncomfortable emotions in the past.


A second way of challenging a redundant belief is to use Byron Katie’s technique, ‘Inquiry’ or ‘The Work’. Her book, ‘Loving What Is’, is essential reading for anyone intending to move forward in their lives but finding themselves held back by restrictive beliefs.

Byron Katie argues that the main source of unhappiness is allowing our thoughts to argue with reality. Wanting the world to be different to how it is, she points out, is like trying to teach a cat to bark!

As we have seen in a previous blog, thoughts which argue with reality are often characterised by words like ‘should’ and ‘shouldn’t’.

The Inquiry method involves:

1. Asking yourself four questions:

  • Is it true?
  • Can you absolutely know that it’s true?
  • How do you react when you think that thought?
  • Who would you be without the thought?

2. Turning it around.

  • If your belief involves another person, put your own name instead of theirs.
  • Or try the extreme opposite – e.g. turn should into shouldn’t.

The Inquiry method takes practice, and is well worth mastering. For full details, visit

Now you! Reflect:

  • Do you believe in yourself?
  • Are you influenced or controlled by any beliefs that you know are not true? Where do you think they came from?
  • Do you believe you create your own circumstances? Or that life is something that happens to you?
  • Do you believe that there is always a way to achieve your goals?

How different would your life be if you really believed in yourself? It’s time to find out!


©David Lawrence Preston, 19.5.2016

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